For a complete program on age appropriate fitness for performance puppies and dogs, see Chris Zink, DVM, and Janet Van Dyke’s book, "Canine Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation."
Epiphyseal Plate Closure in Dogs
Chart of average closure times of different epiphyseal plates in dogs
Explanation of Toddler’s fracture
Article on the effects of growth plate injuries in puppies
Management of Tibial Shaft Fractures in Dogs and Cats
Prevalence of spiral fractures in puppies
Kids Who Exercise Are Less Likely to Have Fractures In Old Age
Sifferlin, A. 2013., Time Healthland
Krontveit, R., Nødtvedt, A., Sævik, B.K., Ropstad, E., Trangerud, C. (2012).
Housing- and exercise-related risk factors associated with the development of hip dysplasia as determined by radiographic evaluation in a prospective cohort of Newfoundlands, Labrador Retrievers, Leonbergers, and Irish Wolfhounds in Norway. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 73(6) 838-46. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.73.6.838.
Borms, J. 1986.
The Child and Exercise: An Overview. Journal of Sports Sciences, Spring;4(1):3-20.
Bright, J.M. 2001.
The cardiovascular system. In: Hoskins, J.D. (ed.), Veterinary Pediatrics: Dogs and Cats from Birth to Six Months, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders & Co., pp. 103-134
Stubbs, Salmeri and Bloomberg. 1995.
Early neutering of the dog and cat by In: Bonagura (ed), Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy, XII, Philadelphia WB Saunders & Co., pp.1037-1040.